Tufte’s micro macrocosm theory is a concept wherein all of his previous theories create a new layer of meaning to the audience. All of the ‘micro’ aspects of his other principles, the individual graphics and illustrations that I covered in my previous blogs, have combined together to create a ‘macro’ meaning. In my case, the illustrations and other graphics come together to create a children’s travel book teaching basic facts on European countries titled ‘Bertie goes to Europe’. 

Tufte advocated strongly for the use of clarity when presenting information. I’ve tried to do this as much as possible in my book, especially regarding the fact that the target audience is young children. I have tried to keep every aspect of the book, from the art style in the illustrations to the information being presented in the graphics, as simple as possible to make it easy to understand. 

To conclude, my final piece also has a layer of meaning that goes beyond it just being a single book. Hopefully, it will help the audience in the long term by not only by educating them but also inspiring them to travel in the future. I also like to imagine that my book could be part of a series wherein Bertie visits other countries in different continents, and broaden the audiences horizons even further.  

Here I’ve presented the book covers and pages as a double page spread layout, as they would appear if it was made into a book. They are also clickable if you wish to view them bigger. 



Creative Campaign References

All of the graphics for my book were created by myself using procreate, a tablet and a graphics pen. Here I have compiled a reference list which includes image sources which I looked at to help me create the graphics and illustrations and also some references showing where I found out the information about the countries. 

Flags references: Worldometer (n.d.) Flags of the world. Available online: https://www.worldometers.info/geography/flags-of-the-world/ [Accessed 05/12/20].

Maps references: Google (2020) Google maps. Available online: https://www.google.com/maps [Accessed 05/12/20].

UK Fact: London Gov (n.d.) How many Londoners do your tube journey everyday? Available online: https://www.london.gov.uk/your-commute [Accessed 06/01/21].

London Eye: Ellis, D (2017) London eye tickets and opening hours everything you need to know about the biggest ferris wheel in europe. Available online: https://www.standard.co.uk/reveller/attractions/london-eye-tickets-and-opening-hours-everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-biggest-ferris-wheel-in-europe-a3706426.html [Accessed 05/12/20].

Bus: London Bus Museum (n.d.) 1959 AEC Routemaster bus – RM140. Available online: https://www.londonbusmuseum.com/museum-exhibits/double-deck-buses/aec-routemaster-rm140/ [Accessed 05/12/20].

Underground sign: The National Gallery (n.d.) London underground logo – magnetic bottle opener. Available online: https://www.nationalgallery.co.uk/products/london-underground-logo-magnetic-bottle-opener/p_1036513 [Accessed 05/12/20].

The Netherlands fact: holland.com (n.d.) Functions of windmills in Holland. Available online: https://www.holland.com/global/tourism/travel-inspiration/traditional/functions-of-windmills-in-holland.htm [Accessed 06/01/21].

The Netherlands image: Oxford Mail (2018) Chance to buy your own 18th century windmill. Available online: https://www.oxfordmail.co.uk/news/16395839.chance-buy-18th-century-windmill/#gallery0 [Accessed 07/12/20].

Germany Fact: Lepores, D (2017) 13 Berlin fun facts you never knew. Available online: https://awesomeberlin.net/berlin-facts-fun [Accessed 06/01/21].

Germany Image: Lepores, D (2017) 13 Berlin fun facts you never knew. Available online: https://awesomeberlin.net/berlin-facts-fun [Accessed 03/01/21].

Italy fact: National Geographic Kids (n.d.) 10 facts about the colosseum. Available online: https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/history/romans/colosseum/ [Accessed 06/01/20].

Italy Image: Brittanica (n.d.) Colosseum. Available online: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Colosseum [Accessed 19/12/20].

Spain fact: Culture Trip (n.d.) La Sagrada Familia: 15 amazing facts you need to know. Available online: https://theculturetrip.com/europe/spain/articles/15-amazing-facts-you-need-to-know-about-la-sagrada-familia/ [Accessed 06/01/21].

Spain Image: Discover more Spain (n.d.) Get inspired at La Sagrada Familia, the towering temple of Spain. Available online: https://discovermorespain.com/la-sagrada-familia/ [Accessed 20/12/20].

France fact: Lampkin, B (2017) 15 monumental facts about the Eiffel Tower. Available online: https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/70991/15-monumental-facts-about-eiffel-tower [Accessed 06/01/21].

France Image: Lonely Planet (2016) Eiffel tower to light up in the colours of the team with most social media activity during Euro 2016. Available online: https://www.lonelyplanet.com/articles/euro-2016-eiffel-tower-to-be-lit-in-colours-of-trending-teams [Accessed 28/12/20].

Layering and Separation

Tufte’s layering and separation theory will be also used throughout my book. It will mainly be utilised in the map graphics, which will be featured on each countries page within my book in order to illustrate where that particular country is located (as seen in fig 1). 

Information is best presented when the individual layers are very distinct. In fig 1, Germany is the featured country and therefore the most important layer on the graphic. I needed to make it stand out more against the other European countries to ensure the viewer would clearly understand where it is, whilst still enabling the viewer to look through the main layer and still comprehend the background information. 

I started by sketching the other countries in a much lighter shade so that they appear more faded. I then focused on making Germany stand out by outlining the border in a thicker line, colouring it in and writing the name in a bolder text. I will be adding colour to this graphic for the finished book, but it will still be following the same principles. Hopefully, it will help the viewer to clearly understand where the specific countries are located.

fig 1 – Map of Europe showing where Germany is located

Narrative over a specific time within a specific space

Fig 1 shows an uncoloured illustration which will be the books front cover, which features the character of Bertie the Bee flying over Europe. The inclusion of the motion line drawn behind Bertie the Bee shows his flight path. This demonstrates Tufte’s specific time and space theory as it visually indicates that time has lapsed.

Another aspect how my book will show Tufte’s narrative over a specific time within a specific space theory would be how my chosen media is a book, specifically about travel. It is my intention that the viewer will feel like they are being taken on a journey when they read it and turn each page eager to find out information about each new place and see interesting illustrations of them. This might hopefully inspire them to physically visit the places as well in the future. I feel this can be summarised well by a quote for the children’s author and illustrator, Dr Seuss: ‘The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go’ (Goodreads, n.d.). The page numbers in a book are also a good indicator that time has lapsed, which I will ensure to include as well. 

fig 1 – Front cover graphic


Goodreads (n.d.) Dr Suess quotes. Available online: https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/6806-the-more-that-you-read-the-more-things-you-will [Accessed 08/12/2020].

Comparison of Small Multiples

Tufte’s small multiples theory will also be utilised within the design of my book. It is where any information presented to the audience is done with clarity and simplicity. This theory is very important for me to consider because my book is aimed at children.

Fig 1 shows my page layout plan, where I will present the information about each country. I have chosen a simplistic layout which will show all of the relevant information in a clear, small space. Every country will have this same layout so that the viewer becomes familiar with it every time they turn the page and see the new information. 

Fig 2 is of a more detailed plan of one of the graphics that will be shown on the left page. It depicts the countries flag along with their capital city, language and currency. I arranged these pieces of information together in small, equal sized sections, this ‘constancy of design puts the emphasis on changes in data, not changes in data frames’ (Tufte, 1990) hopefully educating the reader of the book. This section also utilises different colours to label the information in order to help the information become easier to understand.

fig 1 – my page layout plan showing the various sections

fig 2 – an plan of an infographic that will be shown on each page showing the countries information


Tufte, E. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire: Graphics Press USA.

Introduction and Use of Colour

For my creative campaign, I will be creating an illustrated children’s book focusing on the subject of travel. I’d like to inspire children to take an interest in travel, hopefully educating them through the use of facts and maps as I found out that ‘According to a survey of 1,000 children between the ages of six and 10’ ‘One in 10 children cannot find the UK on a map’ and ’41% . . . did not know that the UK is in Europe’ (ITV, 2012). 

I will be applying Edward Tufte’s design principles throughout my book as well. Firstly, I’m going to apply the use of different colours, something that Tufte believed can be used to enliven designs. I have gone for a pastel toned palette (fig 1) as I feel that they compliment each other well whilst still looking appealing. The large selection of colours will hopefully prove eye catching for children as ‘The presence of colour in children’s books invites them to explore the visual spectrum of the world around them and to learn about it in an engaging and memorable way’ (Happy Designer, 2015).

fig 1 – my pastel toned colour palette 

I will also be using relevant colours to label my graphics. For example, the map graphics will be coloured using blue to label water and green to label land, enabling the viewer to understand the map with clarity. This is also reflected in the colour choice for my character design (fig 2). I have used yellow and black which the viewer will instantly recognise that my character is a bee. 

fig 2 – the use of colour within my character design of Bertie the Bee


ITV (2012) One in 10 children cannot find the UK on a map. Available online: https://www.itv.com/news/2012-04-02/one-in-10-children-cannot-find-the-uk-on-a-map [Accessed 08/12/2020].

Happy Designer (2015) The importance of colour in children’s books. Available online: https://www.happydesigner.co.uk/the-importance-of-colour-in-childrens-books/ [Accessed 08/12/2020].